From Egypt Middle Kingdom, about 2040-1750 BC An ancient Egyptian farmer at work This model was originally placed in a tomb. Models showing various stages in the production of food were placed in wealthy burials of the Middle Kingdom (about 2040-1750 BC) to guarantee that the deceased would have food for eternity. The first stage of the process was ploughing. In Egypt this took place when the flood waters of the inundation receded, leaving a thick layer of fertile silt over the whole of the flood plain. The loose soil required only a simple plough drawn by two cattle to create a furrow. Scenes in tombs and on papyrus show that the crop was often sown in front of the cattle, so that they would trample it into the soil. The main crops were wheat and barley for making bread and beer, and flax, for linen, rope and matting. Cattle were the main draught animals of ancient Egypt. It is unlikely that beef was an everyday foodstuff as cattle were expensive to keep, and more useful as a draught animal. Beef was, however, represented as one of the main components of food offerings for the deceased. Models showing the slaughter of cattle for this purpose were placed in tombs, and represented on offering tables in wall paintings.  

Latest news

26/2/2018
The January 2018 issue of
ISTRO INFO
is available from the Download page.

26/2/2018
The July 2017 issue of
ISTRO INFO
is available from the Download page.

26/2/2018
The October 2017 issue of
ISTRO INFO
is available from the Download page.

26/2/2018
The Extra December 2017 issue of
ISTRO INFO
is available from the Download page.

 

Welcome to the ISTRO website!

On this site you will find information about the International Soil Tillage Research Organisation (ISTRO), which focusses on the impact and consequences of various soil tillage practices. More information about the organisation itself can be found on the organisation page.
Activities organised by ISTRO and other organisations concerning soil tillage can be found on the activities page.
Further information about recent publications are found on the publications page.


ANNOUNCEMENT & CALL FOR PAPERS

The 21st International Soil Tillage Research Organization Conference will be held in Paris from 24-27 September 2018.
With a special focus on Tillage and Soil Ecology

More details of this meeting and registration can be found on the meeting website and in the meeting flyer.


ISTRO would like to honor each new PhD in soil-tillage related fields with a free 3-year Membership of ISTRO and a free 1-year subscription on Soil & Tillage Research Journal.

New PhD should be nominated by one of their graduate advisors / promotors who are ISTRO Member by sending an e-mail to the Secretary General of ISTRO.

An abstract and the thesis of the new PhD will be available on the publications page of this website.

 

This site has been updated on Monday, February 26, 2018.